Notion Formulas 2.0: The Ultimate Cheat Sheet (2023)

The Notion Formula Cheat Sheet 2022 - Thomas Frank

This is a complete quick reference or “cheat sheet” for Notion formulas. On this page you’ll find one or more example formulas for every constant, operator, and function available in the Notion formula editor.

This cheat sheet is meant to be a quick, easy-to-use bookmark.

It is a companion to my complete Notion Formula Reference. There, you’ll find comprehensive technical documentation on Notion formulas, including:

You may also want to check out my Formula Examples Database in Notion itself; there, you’ll find more than 100 example databases demonstrating how to use every formula component listed here.

Here are some of the most common terms you’ll run across when working with Notion formulas. Each link here will take you to a full page in the Formula Reference where you can learn more.

  • Property – other properties that exist in your Notion database. In the new formula editor, property references are displayed as tokens. For example, prop("Number") will now be shown as Number instead. Outside of the new editor, like in this documentation, you’ll still see prop("Number") being used — this is so you can easily copy and paste the examples into the new editor.
  • Built-ins
  • Functions – pre-defined formulas that you can use to accomplish complex things quickly. Examples include concat (combines lists) and dateAdd (adds x units of time to a date).

Arguments are the accepted pieces of data used within functions:

/* function_name(argument_1, argument_2, ...) */ divide(10, 2) /* Output: 5 */ /* Note that spaces between arguments are optional, but commas are required. */ join(["My","Chemical", "Romance"], " ") /* Output: "My Chemical Romance" */

Notion formulas support seven distinct data types:

  • String – text content
  • Number – numeric characters, on which mathematical operations can be performed
  • Boolean/Checkbox – true/false values
  • Date – date objects
  • Person — a special data object for items found in a Person property
  • Page — a special data object for items found in a Relation property
  • List — an array of any of the above data types

Good to know: A Notion formula can only return data of a single type. When working with multiple data types, make sure to use type conversion to convert everything to a single type in order to avoid errors.

The add (+) operator allows you to:

  • Perform addition on numbers
  • Concatenate strings – i.e. combine them (also doable with join())

Full reference: add

Usage: + or add() → function version

2 + 5 /* Output: 7 */ "Monkey D." + " Luffy" /* Output: "Monkey D. Luffy" */ add(4,7) /* Output: 11 */ 40.add(2) /* Output: 42 */

The subtract (-) operator allows you to subtract two numbers and return their difference.

Full reference: subtract

Usage: - or subtract()

12 - 5 /* Output: 7 */ subtract(5, 12) /* Output: -7 */ 47.subtract(5) /* Output: 42 */

The multiply (*) operator allows you to multiply two numbers together and get their product.

Full reference: multiply

Usage: * or multiply()

12 * 4 /* Output: 48 */ multiply(12,-4) /* Output: -48 */ 21.multiply(2) /* Output: 42 */

The remainder (%) operator allows you to get the remainder after dividing the first operand with the second operand.

Full reference: mod

Usage: % or mod()

19 % 12 /* Output: 7 */ 19 mod 12 /* Output: 7 */ mod(-19, 12) /* Output: -7 */ -19.mod(12) /* Output: -7 */

The power (^) operator (also known as the exponentiation operator) allows you to raise a number to a higher power.

Full reference: pow

Usage: ^ or pow()

3 ^ 4 /* Output: 81 */ pow(4,3) /* Output: 64 */ 4.pow(3) /* Output: 64 */ 2 ^ 2 ^ 3 /* Output: 256 - evaluates as 2 ^ (2 ^ 3) */

The divide (/) operator allows you to divide two numbers and get their quotient.

Full reference: divide

Usage: / or divide()

12 / 4 /* Output: 3 */ divide(12, -4) /* Output: -3 */ 126.divide(3) /* Output: 42 */

The equality (==) operator returns true if its operands are equal. It accepts operands of all data types – strings, numbers, booleans, dates, and lists.

Full reference: equal

Usage: equal() or ==

1 == 1 /* Output: true */ equal(1, 1) /* Output: true */ 1.equal(1) /* Output: true */ 1 == 2 /* Output: false */ "1" == 1 /* Output: false */ toNumber("1") == 1 /* Output: true (uses the toNumber function to convert "1" to a number */ 2 ^ 2 == 4 /* Output: true */ length("Monkey D. Luffy") == 15 /* Output: true */ [1, 2] == [2, 1] /* Output: false */

The inequality (!=) operator returns true if its operands are not equal. It accepts operands of all data types – strings, numbers, booleans, dates, and arrays.

Full reference: unequal

Usage: unequal() or !=

1 != 2 /* Output: true */ 1 != 1 /* Output:false */ unequal("Cat","Dog") /* Output: true */ "Cat".unequal("Dog") /* Output: true */ "1" != 2 /* Output: true */ 2^3 != 10 /* Output: true */

The greater than (>) operator returns true if its left operand is greater than its right operand. It accepts strings, numbers, date, and Boolean operands.

Full reference: Greater than

Usage: >

2 > 1 /* Output: true * 42 > 50 /* Output: false */ /* Boolean values equate to 1 (true) and 0 (false) */ true > false /* Output: true */ true > true /* Output: false */ "ab" > "aa" /* Output: true */ /* For dates, "less than" equates to "before" */ now() > dateSubtract(now(), 1, "days") /* Output: true */

The greater than or equal (>=) operator returns true if its left operand is greater than or equal to its right operand. It accepts numeric, date, and Boolean operands.

Full reference: Greater than or equal

Usage: >=

2 >= 1 /* Output: true */ 42 >= 42 /* Output: true */ /* Boolean values equate to 1 (true) and 0 (false) */ true >= false /* Output: true */ true >= true /* Output: true */ "aa" >= "aa" /* Output: true */ /* For dates, "less than" equates to "before" */ now() >= now() /* Output: true */

The less than (<) operator returns true if its left operand is less than its right operand. It accepts numeric, date, and Boolean operands.

Full reference: Less than

Usage: <

2 < 1 /* Output: false */ 42 < 50 /* Output: true */ /* Boolean values equate to 1 (true) and 0 (false) */ false < true /* Output: true */ true < true /* Output: false */ "ab" < "aa" /* Output: false */ /* For dates, "less than" equates to "before" */ now() < dateAdd(now(), 1, "months") /* Output: true */

The less than or equal to (<=) operator returns true if its left operand is less than or equal to its right operand. It accepts numeric, date, and Boolean operands.

Full reference: Less than or equal

Usage: <=

2 <= 3 /* Output: true */ 42 <= 42 /* Output: true */ /* Boolean values equate to 1 (true) and 0 (false) */ false <= true /* Output: true */ true <= true /* Output: true */ "ab" <= "ac" /* Output: true */ /* For dates, "less than" equates to "before" */ now() <= now() /* Output: true */

The and operator returns true if and only if both of its operands have a true Boolean value. Otherwise, it will return false. It accepts Boolean operands.

Full reference: and

Usage: and or &&

true and true /* Output: true */ true and false /* Output: false */ and(1 > 0, 0 < 4) /* Output: true */ if( true and true, "Happy", "Sad" ) /* Output: "Happy" */ if( true and false, "Happy", "Sad" ) /* Output: "Sad" */ if( 5 > 4 and 1 < 3, true, false ) /* Output: true */ if( length("Monkey D. Luffy") > 5 and length("Monkey D. Luffy") < 100, true, false ) /* Output: true */ 4 > 2 && 3 < 4 && 7 == 7 ? true : false /* Output: true */

The or operator returns true if either one of its operands is true. It accepts Boolean operands.

Full reference: or

Usage: or or ||

true or false /* Output: true */ false or true /* Output: true */ false or false /* Output: false */ 10 > 20 or "Cat" == "Cat" /* Output: true */ 10 > 20 || "Cat" == "Dog" || true /* Output: true */

The not operator inverts the truth value of a Boolean/Checkbox value in a Notion formula. Another way of thinking about it is that it returns true only if its operand is false. It accepts Boolean operands.

Full reference: not

Usage: not or !

not true /* Output: false */ not(true) /* Output: false */ not empty("Hello") /* Output: true */ !empty("Hello") /* Output: true */ not if(50 > 40, true, false) /* Output: false */

The true constant represents the Boolean output true. Its opposite is false.

Full reference: true

true /* Output: true (checked checkbox) */ true ? "😀" : "😭" /* Output: "😀" */

The false constant represents the Boolean output false. Its opposite is true.

Full reference:  false

false /* Output: false (unchecked checkbox) */ false ? "😀" : "😭" /* Output: "😭" */

The if() function allows you to write if-then statements within a Notion formula.

Full reference: if → ifs now also available to simplify nested if statements

Usage: if() or  ? :

/* if() Syntax */ if( prop("Type") == "Mammal", true, false ) /* Output: true */ /* Ternary Syntax */ prop("Type") == "Mammal" ? true : false /* Output: true */ /* Nested if() Statement */ if( prop("Age") < 13, "Child", if( prop("Age") < 19, "Teenager", "Adult" ) )

The ifs() function allows you to write multiple else-if statements without resorting to nested if statements.

Full reference: ifs

ifs(true, 1, true, 2, 3) /* Output: 1 */ true.ifs(1, true, 2, 3) /* Output: 1 */

The empty() function returns true if its argument is empty, or has a value that equates to empty – including 0false, and []

Full reference: empty

empty("") /* Output: true */ empty(0) /* Output: true */ empty(false) /* Output: true */ [].empty() /* Output: true */ /* Assume a row where the Name property is currently blank */ empty(prop("Name")) /* Output: true */ /* Assume a row where the Name property contains text */ not empty(prop("Name")) /* Output: true */ /* The same result can be accomplished with conditional operators (assume the Name property contains text in this row) */ empty(prop("Name")) ? false : true /* Output: true */

The length() function outputs a number that corresponds to the length of a string, number, or list.

Full reference: length

length("Monkey D. Luffy") /* Output: 15 */ "Monkey D. Luffy".length() /* Output: 15 */ length("Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious") /* Output: 34 */ length("Doctor Doom") /* Output: 11 */ ["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami", "Chopper"].length() /* Output: 4 */ 12345.length() /* Output: 5 */

The substring() function allows you to “slice” up a string and output a smaller piece of it.

Full reference: substring

substring("Dangerfield",0,6) /* Output: "Danger" */ "Dangerfield".substring(6) /* Output: "field" */ substring("Monkey D. Luffy",0,6) /* Output: "Monkey" */ substring("Monkey D. Luffy", 10, 15) /* Ouput: "Luffy" */ substring("●●●●●●●●●●",0,6) + substring("○○○○○○○○○○",0,6) /* Output: "●●●●●○○○○○" */

The contains() function tests whether the first argument contains the second argument. It only accepts strings (or nested functions that output strings).

Full reference: contains

contains("Monkey D. Luffy", "Luffy") /* Output: true */ contains("Monkey D. Luffy", "keyLuf") /* Output: false */ contains(true, "true") /* Output: true */ contains(123, "123") /* Output: true */ contains(now(), "Aug") /* Output: true (if month is August) */ contains([1, 2, 1], [1, 2]) /* Output: true */

The test() function allows you to test whether a string contains a substring, the latter of which can be a regular expression. If it does, the function returns true.

Full reference: test

test("Monkey D. Luffy", "Luffy") /* Output: true */ /* test() is case-sensitive */ test("Monkey D. Luffy", "luffy") /* Output: false */ /* You can use brackets [] to create a set of characters, any of which will be matched */ test("Monkey D. luffy", "[Ll]uffy") /* Output: true */ /* You can also create a group with () and then use the | (OR) operator */ test("Monkey D. luffy", "(L|l)uffy") /* Output: true */

The match() function returns all matches of a regular expression as a list.

Full reference: match

match("Thomas 123 Frank 321", "\d+") /* Output: ["123", "321"] */ "Thomas 123 Frank 321".match("\d+") /* Output: ["123", "321"] */

The replace() function searches a string for a pattern (which can be a regular expression), and replaces the first match it finds with another string.

For replace()replaceAll(), and test(), you may also want to refer to my full guide on using regular expressions in Notion.

Full reference: replace

replace("Pogo","Po","Dog") /* Output: "Doggo" */ /* Matches the first occurrance, unless otherwise specified */ replace("Dogs Dogs Dogs", "Dogs", "Cats") /* Output: "Cats Dogs Dogs" */ /* $ tells the regex engine "start from end of line and work backwards" */ replace("Dogs Dogs Dogs", "Dogs$", "Cats") /* Output: "Dogs Dogs Cats" */ /* Matches are case-sensitive */ replace("thomas", "t", "T") /* Output: "Thomas" */ /* You can use brackets [] to create a set of characters, any of which will be matched */ replaceAll("thomas", "[Tt]homas", "Megatron") /* Output: "Megatron" */ /* You can also create a group with () and then use the | (OR) operator */ replaceAll("thomas", "(T|t)homas", "Megatron") /* Output: "Megatron" */ /* Accepts regex metacharacters, such as "\\b" which denotes "word boundary". Without \\b, this would output "Thwas is Sparta" */ replace("This is Sparta", "\\bis\\b", "was") /* Output: "This was Sparta" */

The replaceAll() function searches a string for a pattern (which can be a regular expression), and replaces ALL matches it finds with another string.

Full reference: replaceAll

replaceAll("Dogs Dogs Dogs", "Dogs", "Cats") /* Output: "Cats Cats Cats" */ /* Matches are case-sensitive */ replaceAll("Dogs dogs Dogs", "Dogs", "Cats") /* Output: "Cats dogs Cats" */ /* You can use brackets [] to create a set of characters, any of which will be matched */ replaceAll("Dogs dogs Dogs", "[Dd]ogs", "Cats") /* Output: "Cats Cats Cats" */ /* You can also create a group with () and then use the | (OR) operator */ replaceAll("Dogs dogs Dogs", "(D|d)ogs", "Cats") /* Output: "Cats Cats Cats" */ /* Accepts regex metacharacters, such as "\b" which denotes "word boundary". Without \b, this would output "Thwas was Sparta" */ replaceAll("This is Sparta","\bis\b","was") /* Output: "This was Sparta" */ /* replaceAll() was a great way to count elements in a string, but the introduction of lists makes this much simpler. */ /* Original replaceAll version */ length(replaceAll("Dog, Cat, Monkey, Bat, Gorilla", "[^,]" ,"")) + 1 /* Output: 5 */ /* Using a list instead */ ["Dog", "Cat", "Monkey", "Bat", "Gorilla"].length() /* Output: 5 */

The lower() function converts a string to lowercase.

Full reference: lower

lower("THOMAS FRANK") /* Output: "thomas frank" */ "COLLEGE INFO GEEK".lower() /* Output: "college info geek" */

The upper() function converts a string to uppercase.

Full reference: upper

upper("Thomas Frank") /* Output: "THOMAS FRANK" */ "College Info Geek".upper() /* Output: "COLLEGE INFO GEEK" */

The repeat() function repeats a string a given number of times.

Full reference: repeat

"This is " + "very ".repeat(3).split(" ").join(", ") + " good."

The link() function creates a link from a label string and a URL.

Full reference: link

link("Thomas Frank", "https://thomasjfrank.com") /* Output: "Thomas Frank" (as a link) */ "College Info Geek".link("https://collegeinfogeek.com") /* Output: "College Info Geek" (as a link) */

The style() function adds formatting to a string. Three levels of styling can be added:

  1. Text Decorations: Bold ("b"), Underline ("u"), Italics ("i"), Code ("c"), Strikethrough ("s")
  2. Text Colors: "gray""brown""orange""yellow""green""blue""purple""pink""red"
  3. Background Colors: "gray_background""brown_background""orange_background""yellow_background""green_background""blue_background""purple_background""pink_background""red_background"

Full reference: style

style("Thomas Frank", "b", "i", "gray", "red_background") /* Output: "Thomas" (with bold, italics, grey text, and a red background) */ "Notion Formulas".style("c", "u", "red") /* Output: "Notion Formulas" (with inline code, underline, and red text) */

The unstyle() function removes formatting from a string. You are able to specify the styles to be removed, or leave them out to remove all styling.

Full reference: unstyle

unstyle("***Thomas Frank***") /* Output: "Thomas Frank" */ "Notion Formulas".unstyle("u") /* Output: "Notion Formulas" */

The format() function formats its argument as a string. It accepts all data types, including dates, booleans, numbers, lists, people, pages, and even strings.

Full reference: format

format(4) /* Output: "4" */ 4.format() /* Output: "4" */ format(5 + 5) /* Output: "10" */ format(true) /* Output: "true" */ format(5 > 4) /* Output: "true" */ format(now()) /* Output: "June 20, 2022 2:23 PM" (changes with now()'s value) */ "There are " + format(10) + " Straw Hat members." /* Output: "There are 10 Straw Hat members." */ prop("Relation").format() /* Output: "Page 1 Name,Page 2 Name" */

New in Formulas 2.0: Numbers, booleans, dates, lists will be automatically converted to strings without needing to use format. If doing this, note that date and person objects will be shown in their rich format, grayed out with the @ at the start. Page objects will also be shown in their rich format, as inline page links with icons.

"There are " + 10 + " Straw Hat members." /* Output: "There are 10 Straw Hat members." */ "Right now it's " + now() /* Output: "Right now it's @September 7, 2023, 10:00 AM */

The min() function returns the smallest of one or more numbers. min() accepts only numbers or properties that output numbers (it will not auto-convert booleans).

Full reference: min

min(4, 1, 9, -3) /* Output: -3 */ /* Assume prop("Num") contains 3 */ [prop("Num"), 13, 5].min() /* Output: 3 */ /* Assume prop("Num") is blank (not 0) */ min(prop("Num"), 13, 5) /* Output: 5 */ /* Other data types must be converted to number. Here, the toNumber function is used to convert false to a number (0) */ min(3, 8, toNumber(false)) /* Output: 0 */

The max() function returns the greatest of one or more numbers. max() accepts only numbers or properties that output numbers (it will not auto-convert booleans).

Full reference: max

max(3, 5, 4) /* Output: 5 */ /* Assume prop("Num") contains 20. */ [prop("Num"), 13, 5].max() /* Output: 20 */ /* Assume prop("Num") is blank (not 0) */ max(prop("Num"), 13, 5) /* Output: 13 */ /* Other data types must be converted to number. Here, the toNumber function is used to convert true and "3" to numbers. */ max(1, toNumber(true), toNumber("3") ,9) /* Output: 9 */

The sum() function adds together its arguments and returns the result. Note that this function works with regular numbers, a list of numbers, and even multiple lists of numbers.

Full reference: sum

sum(1, 2, 3) /* Output: 5 */ [4, 5, 6].sum() /* Output: 15 */ sum([7, 8], [9]) /* Output: 24 */

The abs() function calculates the absolute value of a number.

Full reference: abs

abs(-42) /* Output: 42 */ 42.abs() /* Output: 42 */

The round() function rounds its argument to the nearest integer (whole number).

Full reference: round

round(4.5) /* Output: 5 */ 4.49.round() /* Output: 4 */ round(-4.49) /* Output: -4 */ round(-4.5) /* Output: -4 */ round(-4.51) /* Output: -5 */ /* Round to two decimal places */ round(4.158015 * 100) / 100 /* Output: 4.16 */ /* Round to three decimal places */ round(5145.018394 * 10000)/10000 /* Output: 5145.0184 */

The ceil() function returns the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to its argument.

Full reference: ceil

ceil(4.2) /* Output: 5 */ 3.845.ceil() /* Output: 4 */ ceil(4) /* Output: 4 */ /* Calculate the donated change in a round-up donation. Assume prop("Subtotal") is $5.34 */ ceil(prop("Subtotal")) - prop("Subtotal") /* Output: $0.66 */

The floor() function returns the largest integer that is less than or equal to its argument.

Full reference: floor

floor(4.2) /* Output: 4 */ 3.845.floor() /* Output: 3 */ floor(4) /* Output: 4 */

The sqrt() function returns the square root of its argument. sqrt() accepts only numbers.

Full reference: sqrt

sqrt(16) /* Output: 4 */ 100.sqrt() /* Output: 10 */ sqrt(73-3^2) /* Output: 8 */

The cbrt() function returns the cube root of its argument. cbrt() accepts only numbers.

Full reference: cbrt

cbrt(8) /* Output: 2 */ 64.cbrt() /* Output: 4 */ /* Total surface area of cube with Volume 300m³ using formula 6a², where a = edge length */ 6 * cbrt(300) ^ 2 /* Output: 268.88428479343 */

The exp() function allows you to raise Euler’s Number e (the base of the natural logarithm) to a higher power and get the output, where the argument is the exponent of e.

Full reference: exp

exp(2) /* Output: 7.389056098931 */ 5.exp() /* Output: 148.413159102577 */ e ^ 5 /* Output: 148.413159102577 */ exp(ln(5)) /* Output: 5 */ ln(exp(5)) /* Output: 5 */

The ln() function returns the natural logarithm of a number.

Full reference: ln

ln(20) /* Output: 2.995732273554 */ e.ln() /* Output: 1 */

The log10() function returns the base-10 logarithm of a number.

Full reference: log10

log10(1000) /* Output: 3 */ 10.log10() /* Output: 1 */

The log2() function returns the base-2 logarithm of a number.

Full reference: log2

log2(64) /* Output: 6 */ 2.log2() /* Output: 1 */

The sign() function returns the sign of its argument. It indicates whether its argument is positive, negative, or zero.

Full reference: sign

sign(-5) /* Output: -1 */ 5.sign() /* Output: 1 */ sign(0) /* Output: 0 */ sign(+"-1") /* Output: -1 */

The mathematical constant pi (π) equals (roughly) 3.1415926559.

Full reference: pi

pi() /* Output: 3.14159265359 */ pi() * 10 ^ 2 /* Output: 314.159265358979 */

The mathematical constant e is known as Euler’s Number, and approximately equals 2.718281828459045.

Full reference: e

e() /* Output: 2.718281828459 */ 500 * e() ^ (0.3 * 10) /* Output: 10042.768461593832 */

The toNumber() function converts its argument to a number if it can do so. It is useful for converting strings, booleans, and dates to numbers.

Full reference: toNumber

toNumber("42") /* Output: 42 */ "42".toNumber() /* Output: 42 */ toNumber(true) /* Output: 1 */ false.toNumber() /* Output: 0 */ toNumber(5 > 3) /* Output: 1 */ now().toNumber() /* Output: 1655757000000 (changes with now()'s value) */

The now() function returns the current date and time in your local timezone. now() accepts no arguments.

Full reference: now

now() /* Output: June 23, 2022 12:30 PM (at time of writing) */

The minute() function returns an integer (number) between 0 and 59 that corresponds to the minute of its date argument.

Full reference: minute

minute(now()) /* Output: 25 (When current time was 11:25 AM) */ /* Assume a propety called Date with a current date of June 24, 2022 11:29 AM */ prop("Date").minute() /* Output: 29 */

The hour() function returns an integer (number) between 0 and 23 that corresponds to the hour of its date argument.

Full reference: hour

hour(now()) /* Output: 11 (When current time was 11:25 AM) */ /* Assume a propety called Date with a current date of June 24, 2022 11:29 AM */ prop("Date").hour() /* Output: 11 */

The day() function returns an integer (number) between 0 and 6 that corresponds to the day of the week of its date argument:

  • 0 = Sunday
  • 1 = Monday
  • 2 = Tuesday
  • 3 = Wednesdy
  • 4 = Thursday
  • 5 = Friday
  • 6 = Saturday

Full reference: day

day(now()) /* Output: 5 (when now() = June 24, 2022) */ /* Assume a propety called Date with a current date of June 1, 2022 */ prop("Date").day() /* Output: 3 */

The date() function returns an integer (number) between 1 and 31 that corresponds to the day of the month of its date argument.

Full reference: date

date(now()) /* Output: 24 (when now() = June 24, 2022) */ /* Assume a propety called Date with a current date of June 1, 2022 11:29 AM */ prop("Date").date() /* Output: 1 */

The week() function

Full reference: week

week(parseDate("2023-01-02")) /* Output: 1 */ parseDate("2023-01-02").week() /* Output: 1 */

The month() function returns an integer (number) between 0 and 11 that corresponds to the month of its date argument.

Full reference: month

month(now()) /* Output: 5 (when now() = June 24, 2022) */ /* Assume a property called Date with a current date of Jan 1, 2022 */ prop("Date").month() /* Output: 0 */

The year() function returns an integer (number) that corresponds to the year of its date argument.

Full reference: year

year(now()) /* Output: 2022 (When now() = June 24, 2022) */ /* Assume a property called Date with a current date of June 24, 2022 */ prop("Date").year() // Output: 2022

The dateAdd() function accepts a date argument and adds to it, returning a new date.

It requires three arguments in the following order:

  1. A date (must be an actual date data type)
  2. A number
  3. A unit

Accepted units include:

  • “years”
  • “quarters”
  • “months”
  • “weeks”
  • “days”
  • “hours”
  • “minutes”
  • “seconds”
  • “milliseconds”

Full reference: dateAdd

/* Assume a property called "Date" with a current row value of June 1, 2022 */ dateAdd(prop("Date"),3,"months") /* Output: September 1, 2022 */ prop("Date").dateAdd(5,"days") /* Output: June 6, 2022 */

The dateSubtract() function accepts a date argument and subtracts from it, returning a new date.

It requires three arguments in the following order:

  1. A date (must be an actual date data type)
  2. A number
  3. A unit

Accepted units include:

  • “years”
  • “quarters”
  • “months”
  • “weeks”
  • “days”
  • “hours”
  • “minutes”
  • “seconds”
  • “milliseconds”

Full reference: dateSubtract

/* Assume a property called "Date" with a current row value of June 1, 2022 */ dateSubtract(prop("Date"),3,"months") /* Output: March 1, 2022 */ prop("Date").dateSubtract(5,"days") /* Output: May 27, 2022 */

The dateBetween() function returns the amount of time between two dates, based on a specified unit of time.

The function returns a number, and requires three arguments in the following order:

  • Date 1 (must be a date data type)
  • Date 2 (must be a date data type)
  • A unit

Accepted units include:

  • “years”
  • “quarters”
  • “months”
  • “weeks”
  • “days”
  • “hours”
  • “minutes”
  • “seconds”
  • “milliseconds”

Full reference: dateBetween

/* Assume now() == June 23, 2022 and Date == June 1, 2022 */ dateBetween(now(),prop("Date"),"days") /* Output: 22 */ /* Assume now() == June 23, 2022 and Date == June 30, 2022 */ now().dateBetween(prop("Date"),"days") /* Output: -6

The dateRange() function

Full reference: dateRange

/* Assume Start Date == June 23, 2022 and End Date == June 30, 2022 */ dateRange(prop("Start Date"), prop("End Date")) /* Output: June 23, 2022 → June 30, 2022 */ prop("Start Date").dateRange(prop("End Date")) /* Output: June 23, 2022 → June 30, 2022 */

The dateStart() function returns the start date from a date range. It accepts a single date argument. Note: this function was renamed from start, which no longer works.

Full reference: dateStart

/* Assume a property "Date" exists, with a row value of June 23, 2022 → June 27, 2022 */ start(prop("Date")) /* Output: June 23, 2022 */ prop("Date").start() /* Output: June 23, 2022 */

The dateEnd() function returns the end date from a date range. It accepts a single date argument. Note: this function was renamed from end, which no longer works.

Full reference: dateEnd

/* Assume a property "Date" exists, with a row value of June 23, 2022 → June 27, 2022 */ end(prop("Date")) /* Output: June 27, 2022 */ prop("Date").end() /* Output: June 27, 2022 */

The timestamp() function converts a date argument into its corresponding Unix timestamp (also known as Unix Time or Epoch Time), which is a number.

Full reference: timestamp

timestamp(now()) /* Output: 1656012120000 (will change with the value of now()) */ now().timestamp() /* Output: 1656012120000 (will change with the value of now()) */

The fromTimestamp() function converts a Unix timestamp into a date.

Full reference: fromTimestamp

/* Notion will express this date in your local time zone, so it may look different if you try this formula out. */ fromTimestamp(1656012840000) /* Output: June 23, 2022 7:34 PM (UTC) */ 1656012840000.fromTimestamp() /* Output: June 23, 2022 7:34 PM (UTC) */

The formatDate() function formats a date as a string using the Moment standard time format.

Full reference: formatDate

formatDate(now(), "MMMM DD YYYY") /* Output: June 24 2022 */ now().formatDate("dddd, MMMM DD, YYYY hh:mm A zz") /* Output: Friday, June 24, 2022 10:45 AM MDT */ formatDate(now(), "[Month of] MMMM, YYYY") /* Output: Month of June, 2022 */

View all of the available date tokens here.

The parseDate function takes an ISO 1860-formatted string ("YYYY-MM-DDT00:00Z") and converts it into a date object.

Full reference: parseDate

parseDate("2023-08-16") /* Output: August 16, 2023 */ "2015-10-21T16:08".parseDate() /* Output: October 21, 2015 4:08 PM */ parseDate("2023") /* Output: January 1, 2023 */ parseDate("2023-02") /* Output: February 1, 2023 */

The name() function will return the name of a person data type.

Full reference: name

name(prop("Created By")) /* Output: "Thomas Frank" */ prop("Created By").name() /* Output: "Thomas Frank" */

The email() function will return the email of a person data type.

Full reference: email

email(prop("Created By")) /* Output: [email protected] */ prop("Created By").email() /* Output: [email protected] */

The at() function returns the value found at the specified index in a list. It is zero-indexed, so 0 will return the first item.

Full reference: at

at(["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami", "Chopper"], 1) /* Output: "Zoro" */ [3, 2, 7, 5].at(0) /* Output: 3 */ [prop("Date"), now().dateAdd(1, "days"), now()].at(2) /* Output: August 16, 2023 4:19 PM */

The first() function returns the first element in a list.

Full reference: first

first([1, 2, 3]) /* Output: 1 */ [1, 2, 3].first() /* Output: 1 */

The last() function returns the last element in a list.

Full reference: last

last([1, 2, 3]) /* Output: 3 */ [1, 2, 3].last() /* Output: 3 */

The slice() function allows you to “slice” up a list and output a smaller list.

Full reference: slice → for Formula 1.0 slice behaviour, use substring instead

slice(["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami", "Chopper"], 1, 3) /* Output: ["Zoro", "Nami"] */ ["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami", "Chopper"].slice(2) /* Output: ["Nami", "Chopper"] */

The concat() function concatenates (aka combines) its arguments separated by commas. It accepts one or more list arguments, and outputs a combined list of the top-level lists.

Full reference: concat → for Formula 1.0 concat behaviour, use + instead.

concat(["Roronoa"],["Zoro"]) /* Output: ["Roronoa", "Zoro"] */ [["Roronoa"],["Zoro"]].concat() /* Output: ["Roronoa", "Zoro"] */ concat(["Luffy", "Zoro", ["Nami", "Chopper"]], ["Robin"]) /* Output: ["Luffy", "Zoro", ["Nami", "Chopper"], "Robin"] */

The sort() function

Full reference: sort

sort([3, 1, 2]) /* Output: [1, 2, 3] */ [3, 1, 2].sort() /* Output: [1, 2, 3] */

The reverse() function

Full reference: reverse

reverse(["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami"]) /* Output: ["Nami", "Zoro", "Luffy"] */

The join() function takes its last argument and inserts it in between each of its additional arguments to return a string. It accepts only list arguments.

Full reference: join

join(["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami", "Chopper"], ", ") /* Output: "Luffy, Zoro, Nami, Chopper" */ ["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami", "Chopper"].join(", ") /* Output: "Luffy, Zoro, Nami, Chopper" */ // Use "\\n" to add line breaks join(["Luffy","Zoro","Nami","Chopper"],"\\n") /* Output: Luffy Zoro Nami Chopper */

The split() function

Full reference: split

split("Luffy,Zoro,Nami", ",") /* Output: ["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami"] */ "Luffy,Zoro,Nami".split(",") /* Output: ["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami"] */

The unique() function

Full reference: unique

unique([1, 1, 2]) /* Output: [1, 2] */ [1, 1, 2].unique() /* Output: [1, 2] */

The includes() function tests whether the first argument contains the second argument. It only accepts a list as the first argument and a string as the second. If will only return true if the string matches a full list item.

Full reference: includes

includes(["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami", "Chopper"], "Luf") /* Output: false */ ["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami", "Chopper"].includes("Luf") /* Output: false */ includes(["Luffy", "Zoro", "Nami", "Chopper"], "Luffy") /* Output: true */ [123, 456].includes(123) /* Output: true */ includes([123, 456], "123") /* Output: false */ [true, false, true].includes(true) /* Output: true */ includes([now(), now().dateAdd(1, "days")], now()) /* Output: true */ [[1, 2], 1].includes([1, 2]) /* Output: true */

The find() function returns the first element in a list for which the condition returns true.

Full reference: find

find(["a", "b", "c"], current == "b") /* Output: "b" */ ["a", "b", "c"].find(current == "b") /* Output: "b" */

The findIndex() function returns the index of the first item in a list for which the condition is true. It is zero-indexed, so will return 0 for the first item.

Full reference: findIndex

findIndex(["a", "b", "c"], current == "b") /* Output: 1 */ ["a", "b", "c"].findIndex(current == "b") /* Output: 1 */

The filter() function returns the values in a list for which the condition is true.

Full reference: filter

filter([1, 2, 3], current > 1) /* Output: [2, 3] */ [1, 2, 3].filter(current > 1) /* Output: [2, 3] */

The some() function returns true if any item in a list satisfy the given condition, and false otherwise.

Full reference: some

some([1, 2, 3], current == 2) /* Output: true */ [1, 2, 3].some(current == 2) /* Output: true */

The every() function returns true if every item in the list satisfies the given condition, and false otherwise.

Full reference: every

every([1, 2, 3], current > 0) /* Output: true */ [1, 2, 3].every(current > 0) /* Output: true */

The map() function

Full reference: map

map([1, 2, 3], current + 1) /* Output: [2, 3, 4] */ [1, 2, 3].map(current + 1) /* Output: [2, 3, 4] */

The flat() function flattens multiple lists into a single list.

Full reference: flat

flat([[1, 2], [3, 4]]) /* Output: [1, 2, 3, 4] */ [[1, 2], [3, 4]].flat() /* Output: [1, 2, 3, 4] */

The id() function returns the current row’s page ID, which is a unique string. id() accepts no arguments.

Full reference: id

/* Page URL: <https://www.notion.so/thomasfrank/id-c5d67d15854744869cc4a062fb7b1377> */ id() /* Output: c5d67d15854744869cc4a062fb7b1377 */ prop("Relation").first().id() /* Output: c5d67d15854744869cc4a062fb7b1377 */

The let() function

Full reference: let

let(person, "Luffy", "Hello, " + name + "!") /* Output: "Hello, Luffy!" */ person.let("Luffy", "Hello, " + name + "!") /* Output: "Hello, Luffy!" */

The lets() function

Full reference: lets

lets(a, "Hello,", b, "Luffy!", a + " " + b) /* Output: "Hello, Luffy!" */ a.lets("Hello,", b, "Luffy!", a + " " + b) /* Output: "Hello, Luffy!" */

The built-in current variable returns the value of the current item in the list function.

Reference: current

map([1, 2, 3], current + 1) /* Output: [2, 3, 4] */ [1, 2, 3].map(current + 1) /* Output: [2, 3, 4] */

The built-in index variable returns the index of the current item in the list function. This is zero-indexed, so starts from 0.

Reference:  index

map([1, 2, 3], current + index) /* Output: [1, 3, 5] */ [1, 2, 3].map(current + index) /* Output: [1, 3, 5] */

Here a few useful tips for working more effectively with formulas:

The new formula editor allows for a much nicer editing experience, with new lines, indentation, and comments now available!

  • Create a new line by pressing cmd/ctrl + enter
  • Add indentation by pressing tab — this can be done when the cursor is anywhere on a line
  • Add comments by surrounding text with /* */, like so: /* This won't appear in the formula result */

Full reference: Return Null/Empty Values in Formulas

To return an empty string:

""

To return an empty number:

toNumber("")

To return an empty date:

fromTimestamp(toNumber(""))

To return an empty list:

[]

To return an empty boolean:

1 > 2 ? true : ""

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About the Author

My name is Thomas Frank, and I'm a Notion-certified writer, YouTuber, and template creator. I've been using Notion since 2018 to organize my personal life and to run my business and YouTube channel. In addition to this formula reference, I've created a free Notion course for beginners and several productivity-focused Notion templates. If you'd like to connect, follow me on Twitter.

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